MySQL ERROR 1193 Unknown system variable GTID_PURGED

When restoring MySQL backup taken on Amazon RDS, i get error

To fix this, open db.sql in text editor, remove the line

Another solution is take a new MySQL backup with –set-gtid-purged=OFF option and restore it.

mysql create database

MySQL create database

To create a database, you can use


To create a database with specific charset use

You can use whatever character set you wish instead of utf8mb4.


mysql create database

To delete a database, use



MySQL 8 use caching_sha2_password as default autentication method. Many mysql clients still not support this method. If you need to use old method, you can set autentication plugin as mysql_native_password. You can also set this as default method by editing my.cnf file.

To change a user to use mysql_native_password, run


Disable MySQL bin log on Bitnami

if you have cloud sevrer with less disk space, it is better disable MySQL bin log as it take approx 3 GB of disk space on bitnami server.

To disable MySQL binlog, edit mysql config file.


Add below

Here is what i have in the my.cnf

Now restart MySQL

You can now remove the file starting with binlog from folder /opt/bitnami/mysql/data

MySQL server has gone away

When restoring a MySQL database, i get error “MySQL server has gone away”.

To fix this, edit MySQL configuration file. Add following line under [mysqld] section.

Restart MySQL

If you use MariaDB

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Aria engine is not enabled or did not start

When starting MaraDB, i got error

To fix error, remove the file


Install MariaDB 10.3 on CentOS 7

MariaDB is an Open Source MySQL drop in replacement. MariaDB provides repository for various operating systems at

To install MariaDB 10.3 on CentOS 7, create file


Install MariaDB server and client with

Enable MariaDB start on boot

Start MariaDB


MySQL ERROR Access denied you need SUPER privilege for this operation

WHen restoring a MySQL database, i get following error

I opened the file in vim editor. On checking line 4382, i found following

This is because some stored procedures use old database user as definer. To fix you need to find and replace all entry for old username with new username.

In vim, i can run

Or delete the DEFINER line from SQL file.

Now restore BACKUP_FILE-modified.sql with


MySQL Recovering after a crash using tc.log

After MySQL upgrade from MraiaDB 10.1 to 10.3, MySQL failed to start. On checking log, found

On /var/lib/mysql folder, there is a tc.log file with 0 size. The error is solved by removing this file.