Check if you are using 32 or 64 bit Linux

To identify if you are using 32 bit or 64 bit Linux OS, run command arch.

You can also use uname command

Another way is to use hostnamectl command and look for “Architecture”.

linux sound


Show Sound Devices


aplay is a command line sound player for ALSA soundcard driver.

To list all available sound devices, run

Nginx vs Apache

I recently added nginx as front end for apache. Now nginx serve static content, PHP requests are peroxided to Apache.

Nginx frontend, Apache backend

Apache Only

See Apache, Nginx

Configure Nginx to listen on single IP Address

By default Nginx listens on all IP address on a server. To make nginx listen on specific IP address, edit nginx configuration file

And VirtualHost/server files for each domain located in folders


Replace with

IP_ADDR_HERE = your server IP address on which you need nginx listen on.

See Nginx

Running Python Application with gunicorn and nginx

Create a service file for gunicorn


/home/ubuntu/myapp/wagtail2 = path to the folder where web application is.

/home/ubuntu/myapp/venv/bin/gunicorn = is where gunicorn installed inside virtualenv.

Change these path as required.

Restart gunicorn with

use following nginx config

Restart nginx


To run meteor application on all IP address on the server, run


Online Malware Scanner for websites

If your web site is hacked and infected by malware, Google Safe Browsing can block your web site with red warning.

If this happens, you need to clean your web site. If your web site have lot of files, cleaning become hard as hacker can hide his files in any of these files. Manually verifying files is almost impossible. If you antivirus like clamav, it won’t detect all malware. Even a 1 line PHP script with exec() function can give hacker access back. For this reason, it is always better to remove all files from your server and upload files fresh. If you use CMS like wordpress, joomla, etc.. just download the software and reinstall.

You may need to use images folder from hacked site, in such case, verify these folders don’t have any malware/php files in it. As for theme, it is always better to download latest version from theme provider and do a reinstall. Theme is one place where hackers hide/install backdoors, that allow them to access site after cleanup as many just copy back old theme files.

Here are some sites, that you can use to verify your web site have any malware.

Sucuri SiteCheck

This site provides Free website security check & malware scanner for web sites. You can enter your web site url and it scan your web site and provide report of malware it found.

sucuri online malware scanner

Google Safe Browsing

This service is used by browsers like google chrome and firefox to protect visitors from sites infected with malware.

Google Safe Browsing

You can check if your web site is blocked by google safe browsing at

More Tools

Some other sites that offer online malware scanner of web sites