Change Linux user shell

To change shell for a user, run


I will add a user, if no shell specified, it use sh as shell.

You can find what shell you are using now with command

gonit golang replacement for monit

gonit is a replacent for monitoring software monit. monit was removed from Debian 10 due to security issues and the devloper will not provide a patch for the security vlunerabilty in time for Debian 10 release.

You can download gonit from

Check if you are using 32 or 64 bit Linux

To identify if you are using 32 bit or 64 bit Linux OS, run command arch.

You can also use uname command

Another way is to use hostnamectl command and look for “Architecture”.

linux sound


Show Sound Devices


aplay is a command line sound player for ALSA soundcard driver.

To list all available sound devices, run

Nginx vs Apache

I recently added nginx as front end for apache. Now nginx serve static content, PHP requests are peroxided to Apache.

Nginx frontend, Apache backend

Apache Only

See Apache, Nginx

Git stdin is not a tty

When i push to get respo, i get error

Other than this error on push and pull, everything worked fine.


Add following to top of file /home/git/.bashrc

Modified .bashrc on my server


The problem is fixed by

This is caused on cpanel servers (i have installed gitosis on a cpanel less server a day before and it worked with out any error, this server have cpanel dns only installed.) as cpanel adds

in file /etc/bashrc

It also adds

i replace it with following as i prefer vi

See Git

strace: command not found

This is because strace not installed on the server. Install it with yum